How Fertility Treatments can increase the Chances of Pregnancy?
Eight out of 10 couples who have sex regularly will achieve a pregnancy within a year of trying. Most other couples will achieve a pregnancy within two years of trying.
However, some couples will continue to have difficulties. According to the Human Fertilization and Embryology Authority (HFEA), approximately one out of ten couples in the India has difficulty conceiving. This is sometimes called diminished fertility.
There are several reasons why you and your partner may have problems getting pregnant. If you have tried to achieve a pregnancy for a year without success, talk to your GP. This can coordinate that both of them do some basic tests. If you have been having regular unprotected sex for two years without success, one of you, or both, may have fertility problems.
DIAGNOSES OF FERTILITY PROBLEMS
There are tests and treatments for both men and women with fertility problems. Both you and your partner will need to get tested. Now many of the fertility hospital in India are available for the treatment with advanced technology.
Initial fertility tests can be started by your primary care physician, who can give you support and lifestyle recommendations. Other tests will have to be done by a team of fertility doctors and nurses.
Blood tests may be ordered to check your hormone levels and see if you are ovulating. The GP could also indicate an ultrasound of the uterus, fallopian tubes and ovaries. Depending on the results of these tests, you may need to do others.
You will have to take a sample of your sperm to the clinic to examine it. The test will see the number of sperm, the way they move and if they have normal structure.
TREATMENT OF FERTILITY PROBLEMS
Different treatments are available that increase the chances of achieving a pregnancy. The best treatment will depend on the reasons why a pregnancy is not achieved. It is important to understand that there is no guarantee of achieving a pregnancy with any of the available fertility treatments. Your doctor can tell you more about the success rate of each treatment.
Some treatments can help improve your fertility and the chances of a natural conception.
If you are not ovulating (eg, if you have polycystic ovarian syndrome), you can take medications that stimulate your ovaries to produce eggs. This is called ovulation induction.
There are two main medications used for this; which are called clomiphene (eg, Clomid) and tamoxifen. They are taken for five days each month. Where they can continue to be taken for a maximum of 12 months. After this, your doctor will explain other treatment options.
But if you have polycystic ovarian syndrome and excess weight, your doctor may also order a medication called metformin, if clomiphene or tamoxifen have not been effective on their own.
You can have laparoscopic surgery to make small holes in the surface of your ovary to stimulate it. This is known as laparoscopic ovarian perforation. It is as effective as hormonal injections and may be an option for you if clomiphene or tamoxifen does not make you ovulate.
Hormone injections with the hormone human gonadotropin (a mixture of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone) may be given if clomiphene or tamoxifen has not worked.
Many treatments can help improve the quality of your sperm or help it reach your partner’s uterus.
If the quality of your sperm is affected by hormonal problems, such as hypogonadism, then such medications can help. An operation could eliminate any blockage in the epididymis (where the sperm is stored in each testicle). If you have problems with ejaculation, you can help with medications and other treatments.
Other treatments help more in the conception when controlling the way in which the sperm and the ovum meet. This is called assisted conception.
There are three main types of assisted conception.
Intrauterine insemination (IUI)
Intrauterine insemination involves collecting fast-moving sperm and placing it inside the uterus near the time of ovulation. Generally, this is the first method proposed to couples who suffer from unexplained infertility. It can be used in women who have mild endometriosis. Endometriosis is a condition in which the lining of the uterus grows somewhere else. It is in the abdomen, such as in the ovaries, behind the uterus, or in the bowel or bladder.
Intrauterine insemination (IUI) is also useful for men with ejaculation problems or mild problems with sperm quality. IUI can be combined with the induction of ovulation.
In vitro fertilization (IVF)
In vitro fertilization is a procedure through which the eggs are extracted and mixed with the sperm in a laboratory. Once the ovules have been fertilized, they are placed in the uterus. In vitro fertilization can be carried out with the sperm and ovules of the partner in question or with sperm or donor eggs. Sperm and embryos can also be frozen for future use. Although there are strict legal regulations, overseen by the Human Fertilization and Embryology Authority, which regulate such procedures. You will have to talk about such methods with the specialist who treats you.
You may need an in vitro fertilization treatment if:
- Infertility is inexplicable
- The fallopian tubes are blocked
- Other techniques such as fertility drugs or intrauterine insemination have not worked
Hence you will need to take medications to precisely control the rhythm of your monthly cycle. So that the ovules can be extracted and fertilized on a specific day. A normal monthly cycle produces only one ovule. But with this method, in which three hormones are delivered at different times, several mature ovules will be produced at the same time. This is called superovulation, which increases the chances of achieving a pregnancy.
Generally, the ovules are collected while an ultrasound is done. A fine needle is passed through the vagina and inserted into the ovary. This is an outpatient procedure, so you will not have to stay in the hospital until the next day. And you will need general anesthesia.
Almost at the same time, your partner will have to give a sperm sample. The sperm is washed and centrifuged at high speed to select the healthiest sperm. If donated sperm is used, it is extracted from the place where it is stored and prepared in the same way.
Then the sperm and eggs are mixed in the laboratory.
Successful fertilization can be observed with a microscope after about 16 to 20 hours. If you are a woman under 40 years of age, one or two of the resulting embryos are transferred to your uterus. This is done through a soft plastic tube that is passed through the vagina. If you are 40 or older, up to three embryos could be transferred.
Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)
Intracytoplasmic sperm injection is very similar to in vitro fertilization. But in the first one a single sperm is injected into an ovary in the laboratory and the resulting embryo is transferred to the uterus. This means that whenever a small amount of sperm can be obtained, it is possible to fertilize the egg. This type of fertility treatment is used when there are more serious problems with sperm. This is when the man has had a vasectomy or when there are problems between the ovule and sperm that prevent fertilization.